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  • Category: Music
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  • Location: Belvidere, IL
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English physician and naturalist Thomas Young, records vibrations of a tuning fork on a rotating drum covered with wax. There was no way at the time to play this recording back.

The phonoautograph is developed by French Researcher Leon Scott de Martinville. The device translates air pressure fluctuations caused by sound into a wavy line on a sooty surface by means of a large horn, a diaphragm and a pig's hair. This transcript, recorded on a rotating cylinder, is, however, unable to replay sound.
Another Frenchman, Charles Cros, draws up plans for a machine that not only has the ability to record sound but also to reproduce it. Cros, an artist and a poet could not be taken seriously enough by financiers. The plans were left on the shelf.

Self taught success story Thomas Edison is experimenting with a new telegraph devise when he accidentally runs indented tin foil under a stylus. By the end of the year Edison has produced the first working phonograph able to 'store' and playback sound.

The first piece of recorded sound - Edison recites "Mary had a little lamb"

An improved rival phonograph is invented by Chichester Bell and Charles Tainter at the Volta laboratories they call the machine the "Graphophone" and utilise a wax coated cylinder incised with vertical-cut grooves.
The Invention of the Theremin was invented by Leon Theremin (Lev Sergeivitch Termen).The Theremin is considered the predecessor to the Moog Synthesizer. It is unique in that it is the first musical instrument that can be played without being touched.
Electrical amplification (the microphone) was introduced. This invention forced engineers to re-design reproducers. The Victor Company's answer to this revolution in sound was the Orthophonic Sound Box, which was very sensitive to high and low frequencies.
EMI researcher Alan Dower Blumlein invents Stereophonic Sound for recording.
"Blumlein led an extraordinary life in which his inventive output rate easily surpassed that of Edison, but whose early death during the darkest days of World War Two led to a shroud of secrecy which has covered his life and achievements ever since. His 1931 Patent for a Binaural Recording system was so revolutionary that most of his contemporaries regarded it at as more than 20 years ahead of its time. Among his 128 Patents are the principle electronic circuits critical to the development of the world's first electronic television system." extract from by Robert Charles Alexander
The invention of Magnetic tape first used by the Germans to play back the sound of Adolph Hitler in different cities around Germany. This was supposed to confuse the enemy as to where he was at any point in time.
John Cage composes imaginary Landscape #1: the first piece to use electronic reproduction. The piece was performed on variable-speed tape machines with RCA test tones and other sounds.
The first DJs emerge as entertainers for troops overseas. During WWII, persons armed with a turntable, an armful of records, and a basic amplifier would entertain troops in mess halls, spinning Glen Miller, the Andrews sisters, and Benny Goodman. It was much easier than sending an entire band overseas.

RCA Victor introduce the 7-inch 45 rpm micro-groove vinyl single and compatible turn table.
In Jamaica, as popularity of Jazz and R'n B increases, sound systems are used to promote the music. Sound systems developed from enterprising record shop disc jockeys with reliable American connections for 45s.

Ska develops in Jamaica, which makes the sound system explode in popularity.

Lee "Scratch" Perry, Edward "Bunny" Lee and Osbourne Ruddock (King Tubby) begin operating multi-track studios; they become major reggae producers.

Kool Herc considered to be the first hip-hop DJ develops "Cutting Breaks." Kool Herc adapted his style by chanting over the instrumental or percussion sections of the day's popular songs. Because these breaks were relatively short, he learned to extend them indefinitely by using an audio mixer and two identical records in which he continuously replaced the desired segment. By using two identical records and playing the break over and over switching from one deck to the other. Hip hop derived from "hip hoppin" on the turntable.

"Toasting" begins in dance halls - considered to be a direct link to rap music.
Technics introduced the Direct Drive System, SP-10
Technics released the original SL-1200 as a hi-fi turntable.It is unclear who actually invented the Technics turntable. Apparently it was 2 Technics & Panasonic engineers that were working in Europe at the time.
Hutter, Florian Schneider & Co. form Kraftwerk - the first electronic band. Kraftwerk were quite simply revolutionary's because they built there own equipment and so created there own distinctive sound.
To hear other Kraftwerk tunes visit
Grand Wizard Theodore discovers the scratch. The story behind the scratch is an invention of accident aparently he was mixing away in his bedroom making far to much noise and his mum called up and said turn it off or stop the music and instead of stoping the record with the stop button he used his hand instead and it made a nice sound.
He then came back to the turntables and experimented with pulling the record back and forth across the needle. And so gave birth to the scratch.
Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight" is released. While they didn't really utilize the skills of a DJ, this song had a profound influence on the sound of commercial hip-hop during the early 1980's.
While playing at a club called the Warehouse, DJ Frankie Knuckles lays down drum machine-generated 4/4 beats on top of soul and disco tunes. 12" disco records that included long percussion breaks (ideal for mixing) contribute to the emergence of House Music
Roland introduces the TB-303 bassline machine and the TR-808 drum machine which allows DJs to lay 4/4 drum beats over soul and disco tunes whilst cutting in and out to create a new mixed sound.

Grandmaster Flash's 1982 single "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel" was Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five's first record to demonstrate hip-hop deejaying skills. This record also helped to popularise the scratch sound.
Afrika Bambaata's "Planet Rock" samples Kraftwerk and creates electro. Afrika Bambaata's influence was massive as they had a new sound that was very distinctive and original.
Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five's "The Message" becomes a hit. "The Message" is seen by many as the first serious rap record.
First affordable samplers (Akai s900) hit the market, which enable musicians to capture and manipulate existing sounds.
Other Hip-hop DJs in New York begin to use the spinback capabilities of the Technics 1200 turntable for "scratching", and to extend grooves and "breaks" by cutting back and forth between 2 copies of the same record as first exhibited by Grandmaster Flash.

The DMC (Disco Mix Club) holds its first annual DJ Competition. This is run by technics and is a massive achievement for any dj to win this competition. The competition has been getting stronger and stronger over the years with the development of new ideas and mixing techniques. This competition needs to be scene to be believed as there is little or no Disco and lots of extreme hip hop turntablism.
Hip Hop was then popularised by informas rap artists like ICET, Public Enemy, NWA
and RUN DMC. The music at this time exploaded in the USA and the UK and in parts of europe. The contraversy surrounding the groups lyrics only helped to sell more copies and inspire other hip hop acts.

De La Soul make a landmark album "3ft high and rising" which breaks nearly all production rules and quite simply redefines what hip hop can be. The genius behind the album was now very well known hip hop producer Prince Paul.
The rave scene came out of Acid House and became so big that promoters came up with the idea of putting on huge events in the countryside outside London - events that held thousands of people and went on all night. Police tried to close them down due to public safety issues and because of the amount of drugs that were being taken at these (peaceful Non violent) events.The Prodigy help popularize rave music and break beat and also manage to gain a large American audience.
In 1993 the Criminal justice bill was rushed through parliment allowing police to seize any and all equipment at these events. This is an infringement on human rights that has still not been lifted in the UK!
Scratch DJ Innovator/Perfectionist DJ QBert gains worldwide attention at the DMC.

DJ Flare introduces the "Flare" scratch. 92' also marks the year of the first scratch / battle record that was designed for ease of kutting and tricks because of the samples being on beat one after the other. It was called "Battlebreaks". The idea was then given to Darth Fader and the rest is history. Mixmaster mike follows his career with the beastie boys.