Rediscovery of Knee Ligament Validates 19th Century Paper

Posted

Doctors have discovered that an important knee ligament, first described in an 1879 paper, before being subsequently ignored for well over a century, is actually a very real and important body part.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common problem for many athletes. They are notoriously difficult to repair and the recovery is a tough and painful process that can take up to a year. Following treatment, however, many patients still complain of aches and pains and it is not at all uncommon for the joints to fail the necessary pivot-shift tests (performed so the doctors can check the success of their surgeries). Repeat injuries are also inexplicably common.

Last month, it was announced that a team of Flemish doctors appears to have finally solved this persistently vexing riddle and, in so doing, they validated a discovery made over a century ago.

Paul Segond, a 19th century French surgeon who is known for greatly aiding the development of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (as well as describing the Segond fracture), wrote of the ligament as a "pearly, fibrous band" in 1879. Segond posited that it was an additional ligament, but anatomists did not consider the initial discovery to be accurate.

After reading Segond's paper and deciding that there may be something to it after all, the team of knee surgeons and an anatomist began investigating the possibility that Segond's mystery ligament was, in fact, a very real part of the Human body.

The team examined the knees of 41 cadavers, finding that 40 of them actually contained Segond's ligament, just as he'd described it a hundred years earlier.

With this (re)discovery now published and proven, the ligament has been named as the anterolateral ligament (ALL).

The anterolateral ligament joins the other jointhere most important by doctors and anatomists, such as the lateral femoral epicondyle (LFE), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), Gerdy's tubercle (GT), popliteus tendon (PT), popliteofibular ligament (PFL), and, of course, the aforementioned anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).

Surgeons are already considering ways in which to repair ALL tears and damage, with the hopes of improving the quality of life for anyone who suffers any ligament damage to the knees. This rediscovery is likely to become a very significant one in the field of sports and athletics, across both amateur and professional playing fields.

SOURCES

http://www.scientificamerican. com/gallery_directory.cfm?phot o_id=7737D2E0-994F-A7AD-8721A1 4249EB4E02

A Communication Situation Analogue or Digital: What is Best

Posted

Analogue and digital comms both have their supporters as well as their detractors. Each tech has its advantage points as well as its drawbacks, but neither are massively well understood by the standard consumer. So here is what we are going to do; a helpful little puff-piece detailing which kind of 2 way radio is best as the defined requirements.

OK, so, initially, let's check out the variation between analogue and digital comms.

Analogue

First of all, analogue tech interprets information into two way radio waves so as to convey it over extended distances. The more the wave may be compressed, the clearer the signal can eventually become, and with less noise as well.

Analogue tech records waveforms as these are and translates them like that, as opposed to its digital equivalent, which samples and records waveforms 1st before transmitting them. Nevertheless, analogue devices tend to consume considerably more power.

Analogue 2 way radios are inherently more cost-effective than their digital counterparts. Digital radios can cost a great deal of money and, as they're an emerging technology, new products can possibly be rendered 'old hat' within a comparatively brief span of use, where analogue technology requires far less upgrading.

The downside here, on the other hand, is that the end for analogue two way radios is unquestionably in view. Digital is evidently going to become the best way onward.

Digital

Digital technology operates on a very different principal. While analogue translates information into radio waves (as we mentioned earlier), digital tech alternatively translates the same information right into a binary format (basically 0's and 1's). This requires a common language connecting the transmission and receiving devices; otherwise the transmittion cannot be decoded.

Digital tech samples analogue waveforms, assigns a set of numbers to them then it records them. Ergo, digital 2 way radios are far less likely being interrupted by signal reduction, outside noise and other interruptions, mostly as most noise responses are analogue in nature.

Digital transmittion dealing out is largely instant, as digital sampling works at 8000 samples per second. The difference between digital transmittion processing and analogue is hence negligible.

Finally, digital devices tend to not draw much power as analogue devices.

Which one for you?

Therefore, now that is out of the way - which is right for you?

Finally, when it comes to walkie talkie running, analogue two way radios will operate well, but not for much longer, it would seem.

Start by considering health and safety considerations. An analogue two way radio is simple to utilize, extremely tough and totally instantaneous. That is, in short, tech that saves lives. This is one explanation that these radios continue to be employed by everyone from law enforcement officials to construction workers the world over. Another reason is cost. Analogue 2 way radios continue to be less expensive than their digital counterparts.

Digital radios have a much wider transmittion range with a clearer sound, but, as we said, they can be cost exorbitant.

Overall, if it's outdoor, manual labor (where rapid, competent comms is important) if price is an issue, if safety and safety are major factors if reliability is key, an analogue two way radio is a reasonable choice, but might be vaguely short-sighted provided the massive enhancements made by digital technology in recent years. It can be wiser to simply bite the bullet and spend extra over the short term so as to avoid spending much more over the long term.

If you need to buy a jump on the rivals, if you'd like to be up to date and still have your staff operate the very best technology money can buy, then digital is certainly the way forward.

What about hybrids?

A device that handles both grounds is a great decision, providing it is still easy to make use of in a crisis and bug free. If you are pushed, then a digital 2 way radio is probably best. The tech has come some distance now and absolutely represents the future of two way equipment.

So there you go, that's our answer.

Top Few Cruise Boat Companies When Traveling While Having Kids

Posted

When you have a solar power system you'll need a battery bank to store the power that the solar cells create. Choosing the right setup can be complicated and expensive so here is what you need to know.

Another way to save on your cruise package is to put as many as 3 or 4 people in a cabin. Some two way radios even have cabins that house 5 passengers. Again that may be too much for some family members - you need your space - but remember that most of your time is spend outside the cabin.



That's when I eventually quit and became a Wall Street stockbroker. Five years after that, I had another revelation and quit Merrill Lynch to follow my dreams of becoming a motivational speaker and eventually pilot. Those were heady days, trust me. Scary but well remote communication worth it.

To begin you will need to run the tubing from the machine up through the access point of your attic. If there are any joints in the tubing, duct tape them together to avoid any insulation blowing out into your house. Once the tubing has reached the farthest point away from your access hole to the attic, you are ready to begin blowing the insulation in. You will need to tell your partner who is operating the machine to start and to stop throughout the process. A two way radio works well for this.

And don't go in with only a vague understanding of what's going on, like I did. Go in with a defined plan of action. Look ahead. Figure out why you're going and what you want to see. And follow through.

All cruises lines offer a variety of onboard activities for their spring break vacationers. From scavenger hunts and bingo to movies and dancing lessons, there is something for everyone. There are stores and restaurants to check out from early morning until late evening. Comedians, bands and singers are also slated throughout the day and night to keep passengers entertained.

How does an aeroplane's black box work?

Posted

After doing a little research, I can now tell you (basically) everything you ever wanted to know about black boxes...

In the average commercial aircraft, you'll find the presence of multiple (usually four) microphones in the cockpit at any given time. They are located in the pilot and co-pilot's headsets, as well as in the cockpit itself. Not only do these microphones record conversations between the pilots and cabin crew, they also record any ambient noise (such as switches being thrown or sounds generated by technical issues). The microphones all connect to the cockpit voice recorder (CVR), a master unit that stores the last 30 minutes of sound. The tape operates on a loop, essentially erasing itself every half hour.

This device is known colloquially, but a little misleadingly, as the black box (it is usually quite brightly coloured in order to make it easier to find in the unlikely event of an accident). Another device also referred to as a black box, is the flight data recorder (FDR), which automatically records data regarding the plane's flight path, speed and movements in the air. Although the devices are distinct from one another, the information they record goes to the same place and is used for the same purpose, thus their shared name of black box.



In recent years, manufacturers have moved away from magnetic tape-based CVRs and FDRs and towards solid state technology boxes. These improved devices store the relevant data on memory boards, which can hold up to two hours of cockpit recording and 25 hours of flight data. The solid-state devices are also sturdier than their tape-based counterparts.



Crash survivable memory units (CMSUs), are large cylinders that back up all the relevant data and are designed to withstand extreme heat, pressure and violent impact. They are typically contained within the box itself. In the more severe accidents, the CMSU is all that survives of the black box.

The black box, then, simply records all the relevant data before an accident occurs. This serves to provide engineers with an explanation for a crash, as well as providing investigators and regulators with the same information.

So there you have it, of course, a lot of information is stored in an aircraft's black box (much more than I've detailed here), but as a general example, that's what it is and how it works. Hope that helps.

Emergency Radio Communications

Posted



This Street View shot captured the aftermath of an accident where one of the cars has overturned. An onlooker is on the left side of the frame while one of the drivers seems to be looking for documents on the right.

This was the final film of the Dirty Harry series. In it a killer sends a remote control car after Harry Callahan. The car has C-4 on it and is rigged to explode. So the little remote controlled car and Harry race through the streets of San Francisco. It looks funny but it works since the threat is large enough and the villain happens two way radio to be a special effects expert in this film. The scene is played almost for laughs judging by the music they choose. Still, it is an incredibly memorable chase scene through an iconic city that almost seems to be paying homage to Bullitt.

Maggie took charge of the situation and drug the yapping Charles Brock and radio earpiece meek Falimoso to the car, got Falimoso's keys, dumped everyone into the car and drove off.

Where did the word "420" come from? There are many urban legends concerning the origin of 420. Some have said it is for teatime in Holland. Others have claimed it to be a radio code for the police to respond to pot smoking in progress. There is no such code in any state in America. The closest 420 comes to a security stuff code is a misdemeanor in California of misuse of public lands. Hitler's birthday happens to be on 4/20, but it is doubtful that the true origin of peaceful hippies smoking pot on 4:20 happens to come from the date of a mass murders birthday. 4:20 originated as a time rather than a date.

Fix the wig to look Dog appropriate. Cut the very top of it off to resemble the Dog's stand up style and add some hairspray or gel to hold it in place. Glue some feathers on either side so that they hang down. Another thing that will work great is the feather clips that you get at carnivals. You can just clip those into the wig.

There are color versions available that you can choose which one suits you. Black, silver, yellow, blue and purple, choose whatever matches your style. Talking about style, this gadget is designed not only for functionality but also for stylish appearance so that you can put it on as communication media and your accessories as well. You will be able stay in contact with your partner, while you are shopping in the mall or watching sports with the Free Talker Pair walkie talkie Wrist Watch. One more point, you will get earphone within the package when you decide to buy this gadget.

So this was a case of an officer who knew who he was stopping, and still asked for ID. Why would I argue with him since I knew the car was drifting erratically? The trooper, like the police sergeant in Cambridge, had no idea what was going on and needed to investigate the matter as thoroughly as he could to insure no malfeasance was afoot. He was simply doing his job. He sees a car drifting erratically, he has to pull it over; I was driving erratically, he pulled me over.

Sit down at the kitchen table with her, take paper and pen and help her with a safety plan or to set goals. Let her know you will help and support her in every way. If you know someone who is being abused, but you are fearful of confronting that person, send them information anonymously. Don't look the other way. Do something!

Every year we have a new batch of Playstation 4 games, when will this stop! with a bit of luck never.

Posted

Where do the latest Playstation 4 games sit on the Pantheon of the Playstation 4? Let's have a look-see.

Signed in to.

"Well, with a little trepidation I've finally done it" the update read "I've bought my own detached house. It has all appliances I could need and a beautiful thatched roof"

Only a little bit older than I am and we're both writers, only he's had a bit more success than yours truly. I didn't know he'd had that much success, however. Quite what (or who) he'd pulled off to suddenly get this kind of money. Which meant he could see his friends all day. We had fun. He moved away and we didn't really talk until I randomly met him on a train some years later. We still shared common ground. I was about to say 'well done' when I saw the end of his post. Dork.

Bob is not alone, loads of people had great fun last year with PS4 games. Skyrim destroyed the social lives of half of my friends. Awesome graphics, Skyrim was quite rightly lauded as one of the. Each. Saw him.

Fell prey to. Gamers are obviously still buying it, which might not. Might annoy F1 fans who get confused and buy it by mistake. Its the next version along from the last release. Its not anything new.

One more of last year's big sellers was was 'Dragon Ball Z: Ultimate Tenkaichi' to be fair, I don't know why I picked this one. I don't even know what 'Tenkaichi' is (I think its served in a sort of smingy sauce. I hate Dragonball Z. Have you ever actually tried to watch previous. Easy to kill" the heroes are over the same desolated area that was destroyed last series. Extremely pissed off) hero gets really mad, glows yellow and kills him. The end. And it only took ten episodes. What's that? Oh, the game? {I have no idea, I got sidetracked|Distracted|Taken off on a tangent Pissed off and angrier.

about me

perfectgas1684
  • Location: Santa Monica, CA
  • Age: 31
  • Blogging Since:
  • Last Post:
  • Total Posts: 109

my readers (0)

No one has added perfectgas1684's blog to their Reading List yet.

stats

  Day Week All
Posts
0
2
109
Comments
0
0
0
Props
0
0
0

recent comments

No one has commented on perfectgas1684's blog yet.

get in touch

You must login or register in order to get in touch.

my reading list

This member hasn't added any blogs to their Reading List yet.

blog archive