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Infiana Group adds extruder in Malvern, Pa


Infiana Group GmbH is expanding its UNITED STATES capacity by adding a fresh extruder at its Malvern, Pa. facility.

The company, known as Huhtam formerly?ki Films, in January changed its brand to Infiana. Private equity company Deutsche Beteiligungs AG led a control buyout in November 2014, acquiring the film business from Huhtam?ki Oyj of Finland.

This will increase our portfolio, noted Robert Shumoski, general manager of Infiana THE UNITED STATES.

He said the company s current construction had room for the excess line.

Shumoski said the Malvern facility has had a solid presence in the building and building market. The new range strengthens its functions and also allows for new options in pressure sensitive movies markets and will help develop its composites and personal care marketplaces. The expansion as well gives it more overall flexibility and the capability to handle seasonal demand.

He said he cannot elaborate on the specifics of the growth. Infiana has been in Malvern since 1964 and delivering blown film since 2003.

The company said that it has about 100 employees in Malvern supplying silicone-coated release films as well as non-siliconized smooth and embossed film.

We are well on our method to developing THE UNITED STATES into a high-caliber business with a wide technology base, efficient appliances, and a lot more than anything setting up on a human being capital base plastic pelletizer that may make our programs in the U.S. a success, explained Peter Wahsner, CEO of Infiana Group, in a declaration.

This marks Infiana s first growth since it became independent. The brand new name is derived from three words - development, infinity and film.

Infiana Group GmbH is headquartered found in Forchheim, Germany. It provides about 1 overall,000 employees with development features in Forchheim; Malvern; Camacari, Brazil; and Samutsakorn, Thailand. Infiana reported 2014 product sales around 200 million euros ($219 million).

In the Mix Continuous Compounding Using Twin Screw Extruders


Medical Biomaterials and Plastics

Versatile twin-screw systems can be used for compounding, devolatilization, or reactive extrusion-with the ultimate end products ranging from pellets and fibers to tubes, film, and sheet.

Polymer compounds are useful for an extremely wide range of molded and extruded medical components and products. Such compounds are composed of a base resin that's thoroughly mixed with other components that provide specific beneficial properties relating to the particular end product-for example, effects resistance, clearness, or radiopacity.

Twin-screw extruder with gear-pump front side end and profile program,.

An important type of plastics processing machinery known as a twin-screw extruder can be used to combine fillers and additives with the polymer in a continuous manner, so that the compound shall perform as expected and achieve the desired properties. Factors including the choice of corotation versus counterrotation, screw design parameters, and feeder-program and downstream-pelletizing-program configurations are all important design standards for a successful compounding operation employing twin-screw equipment.

Single-screw extruders are commonly used to make products such as for example catheters and medical-grade movies from pellets which have already been compounded. The principal function of the extruders is to melt and pump the polymer to the devolatilizing, with reduced mixing and die. The use of an individual screw for such applications minimizes strength input in to the process; such devices are in lots of ways the exact opposite of a compounding extruder, that is a high-energy-input device.


Compounding extruders are used to mix together two or more materials into a homogeneous mass in a continuing process. This is accomplished through distributive and dispersive mixing of the various components in the compound as required (Figure 1). In distributive blending, the components will be uniformly distributed in space in a uniform ratio without being divided, whereas dispersive mixing entails the wearing down of agglomerates. High-dispersive mixing necessitates that significant strength and shear be part of the process.

Compounding extruders perform a number of basic works: feeding, melting, blending, venting, and growing die and localized pressure. Numerous kinds of extruders may be used to attain these goals, including single screw, counterrotating intermeshing twin screw, corotating intermeshing twin screw, and counterrotating nonintermeshing twin screw. The sort and physical form of the polymer substances, the real estate of any fillers or additives, and the amount of mixing required could have a bearing on equipment selection.

Twin-screw compounding equipment are primarily dedicated to transferring warmth and mechanical strength to provide mixing and various support functions, with reduced regard for pumping. Different operations performed via this kind of extruder double screw extruder are the polymerizing of fresh polymers, modifying polymers via graft reactions, devolatilizing, blending unique polymers, and compounding particulates into plastics. By contrast, single-screw plasticating extruders are made to minimize energy source and to maximize pumping uniformity, and are inadequate to perform highly dispersive and energy-intensive compounding functions generally.

Among the normal process parameters which are managed in a twin-screw extruder operation are screw rate (in revolutions each and every minute), feed rate, temperatures along the barrel and die, and vacuum level for the devolatilization plant. Standard readouts incorporate melt pressure, melt temperature, motor amperage, vacuum level, and materials viscosity. The extruder engine inputs energy into the process to execute compounding and related mass-transfer functions, whereas the rotating screws impart both shear and energy so that you can mix the factors, devolatilize, and pump.

Twin-screw compounding extruders for medical applications are available commercially in three settings: corotating intermeshing, counterrotating intermeshing, and counterrotating nonintermeshing (Shape 2). Although each features certain attributes which make it suitable for particular applications, both intermeshing types are better suited for dispersive compounding generally.

Twin-screw extruders employ modular barrels and screws (Figures 3 and 4). Screws happen to be assembled on shafts, with barrels configured as ordinary, vented, side stuffing, liquid drain, and liquid addition. The modular character of twin-screw models provides extreme process overall flexibility by facilitating such alterations because the rearrangement of barrels, making the length-to-size (L/D) ratio longer or shorter, or modifying the screw to match the specific geometry to the required process task. Likewise, since wear is often localized in the extruder's solids-conveying and plastication section, only specific ingredients may have to be changed during preventive repair procedures. By the same token, expensive high-alloy corrosion- and abrasion-resistant metallurgies can be employed only where protection against wear is needed.


The cardiovascular of any twin-screw compounding extruder is its screws. The modular aspect of twins and the decision of rotation and amount of intermesh makes feasible an infinite number of screw design variables. However, there are several similarities among the many screw types. Forward-flighted components are used to convey materials, reverse-flighted elements are used to create pressure areas, and kneaders and shear components are used to blend and melt. Screws could be manufactured shear intensive or much less aggressive based on the number and kind of shearing elements integrated into the screw program.

There are five shear regions in the screws for any twin-screw extruder, irrespective of screw rotation or amount of intermesh. The following is undoubtedly a brief description of every region:

Channel-low shear. The combining fee in the channel in a twin is comparable to that of a single-screw extruder, and is significantly lower than in the different shear regions.

Overflight/tip mixing-large shear. Located between the screw idea and the barrel wall, this location undergoes shear that, by some estimates, is as much as 50 times greater than in the channel.

Lobal pools-high shear. With the compression of the material entering the overflight location, a mixing-charge acceleration happens from the channel, with an especially effective extensional shear result.

Intermesh interaction-high shear. Here is the mixing region between the screws where in fact the screws "clean," or nearly wipe. Intermeshing twins are definitely more shear-intensive in this region than happen to be nonintermeshing twins.

Apex mixing-high shear. This is actually region where in fact the interaction from the second screw affects the material mixing rate. Mixing elements could be distributive or dispersive. The wider the combining element, the extra dispersive its action, as planar and elongational shear results occur as materials are forced up and on the land. Narrower mixing elements tend to be more distributive, with big melt-division rates and significantly less elongational and planar shear (Number 5). Newer distributive mixing elements allow for many melt divisions without extensional shear, that may be particularly useful for mixing high temperature- and shear-sensitive materials (Figure 6).

Single-screw extruders contain the channel, overflight, and lobal mixing regions, but not the intermesh and apex kinds. Because single-screw units lack these high-shear regions, they're generally not ideal for high-dispersive mixing. They are often adequate, however, for distributive blending applications.

All twin-screw compounding extruders are starved-fed gadgets virtually. In a starved twin-screw extruder, the feeders set the throughput rate and the extruder screw speed can be used and independent to optimize compounding efficiency. The four high-shear regions are independent from the degree of screw fill basically. Accordingly, at confirmed screw rate, as throughput is raised, the overall mixing decreases, since the low-shear channel combining region will dominate the four independent high-shear regions. If the extruder speed is held consistent and the throughput is undoubtedly decreased, the high-shear regions will dominate more, and better blending will result. The same principle pertains to counterrotating and corotating twins, each of which has the same five shear regions.

In a designed counterrotating intermeshing twin traditionally, the top velocities in the intermesh place are in the same direction, which outcomes in a higher percentage of the substances passing through the high-dispersive calender gap location on each turn. New counterrotating screw geometries are less reliant on calender gap mixing, and make use of the geometric liberty that's inherent in counterrotation to employ up to a hexalobal mixing element, in comparison with a bilobal aspect in corotation.

The top velocities in the intermesh region for the corotating intermeshing twin are in opposite directions. With this configuration, materials are usually wiped in one screw to the additional, with a low percentage entering the intermesh gap comparatively. Materials have a tendency to follow a figure-eight structure in the flighted screw areas, and most of the shear is undoubtedly imparted by shear-inducing kneaders in localized regions. Because the flight from one screw cannot apparent the various other, corotation is bound to bilobal mixing components at standard airline flight depth.

The aforementioned comparison of corotation and counterrotation is an extreme oversimplification. Both types are excellent dispersive mixers and will perform most tasks equally well. It is only for product-certain applications that definitive suggestions can be made for one mode on the other.


Single-screw extruders are generally flood-fed machines, with the sole screw acceleration determining the throughput pace of the machine. Because twin-screw compounders aren't flood fed, the end result rate is determined by the feeders, and screw swiftness is used to optimize the compounding effectiveness of the procedure. The pressure gradient in a twin-screw extruder is without question controlled and retained at zero for much of the procedure (Figure 7). This has substantial ramifications with regard to sequential feeding also to immediate extrusion of something from a compounding extruder.

The selection of a feeding system for a twin-screw compounding extruder is really important. Components could be premixed in a batch-type mixing unit and volumetrically fed in to the main feed interface of the extruder. For multiple feed streams, each materials is individually fed via loss-in-excess fat feeders in to the main feed interface or a downstream site (top or part feed). Each setup has advantages with respect to the product, the average operate size, and the nature of the plant procedure.

When premix is feasible, a percentage of the overall mixing work is accomplished to the components appearing processed in the twin-screw extruder prior. The total result could be a better-quality compound. Outputs can also be increased, since the screws could be run additional "filled" weighed against sequential feeding. Many techniques do not lend themselves to premixing due to segregation in the hopper and various other related problems. A premix operation is often attractive for shorter-run, specialty high-dispersion compounding applications, such as those with color concentrates.

Loss-in-weight feeding systems are used to separately meter multiple components into the extruder often. Loss-in-fat feeders accept a arranged point and start using a PID algorithm to meter components with extreme reliability (normally < 0.5%). They are employed when materials segregate typically, when there are mass density fluctuations of the feedstock, whenever a product is being extruded directly from the compounder, or when any different factor exists that can result in inconsistent metering. The feeders happen to be readily interfaced with SPC/SQC operations. Multiple-component feed streams are often the better decision for larger-volume commodity production runs.

The pressure gradient associated with the starved-fed, twin-screw extruder facilitates feeding downstream from the primary feed port. Generally, there's near-zero pressure for a lot of the procedure. The localized pressure is determined by the screw style, facilitating downstream feeding of liquids or fillers such as for example barium sulfate.

Downstream feeding could be accomplished through injection ports for liquids, and into vents or perhaps via twin-screw area stuffers for an array of other materials, in filler loadings seeing as high while 80%. This separation of the procedure tasks coupled with targeted introduction often results in much less barrel and screw use with abrasive supplies and in a better-quality product.


After the materials passes through a filtering device, the products emerging from the extruder should be converted into an application which can be handled by fabricating equipment. This normally includes choosing the downstream pelletizer-generally a strand-cut, water-ring, or underwater program.

In strand-cut systems, the molten strands are cooled in a water trough and pulled through a water stripper by the pull rolls of the pelletizer. The pelletizer uses both top- and bottom-motivated rolls, which feed the strands to a helical cutter. Water-ring or die-deal with pelletizers slice the strands on or near the die deal with with high-speed knives. The pellets happen to be conveyed right into a slurry discharge then, which is pumped into a dryer where the pellets are separated from the water. In underwater pelletizers, the die encounter is without question submerged in a water-packed chamber or housing, and the pellets are water quenched.

Sometimes, users wish to extrude a merchandise like a tube, film, sheet, or fiber out of your compounding extruder directly, thereby bypassing the pelletizing operation. This sometimes involves conflicting method goals. For instance, to optimize compounding efficiency, the twin screws are most likely to be managed in a starved approach at huge speeds, with a zero pressure gradient along a lot of the barrel. This may bring about inconsistent or low pressure to the die, which is unacceptable for extruding something. If the screws will be run slower or loaded more, pressure can be attained and stabilized but at the trouble of a quality compound. Gear pumps or takeoff single-screw extruders are occasionally attached to leading of the twin-screw compounder and employed to build and stabilize pressure to the die.

The controls connected with attaching a front-end takeoff tend to be more complex compared with those for a stand-alone compounding procedure. The takeoff equipment pump or solo screw becomes the master device, with extruder and feeder speeds adjusted compared to that of the pump to keep a constant inlet pressure. A PID control algorithm is going to be designed that communicates with the feeder(s) and considers the residence time from the feeder through the extruder-generally about 1 minute. Each product operate on the system will generally need a fair sum of development effort with regard to the pressure control function.

Advantages associated with in-series extrusion from a good twin-screw compounder include the polymer having one-less shear and heat record, which often results in improved end-product properties, the elimination of pelletizing, the avoidance of demixing that may occur in the single-screw procedure, and the ability to fine-tune a formulation on-line in support of quality assurance.


There are many critical design conditions that a medical manufacturer should consider when installing a compounding system. They are influenced by the materials being processed, the specific end market in which the product shall be used, the average run size, and the nature of the plant where in fact the equipment will be located. Upstream feeding and downstream system options are believe it or not important than the choice of counterrotation or corotation, or the shear strength found in the screw design. Because many subtle dissimilarities exist between competing twin-screw modes, a user's own choices also enter into the equation. All alternatives should be carefully thought to be before a decision is usually finalized.

Improved Dry Vacuum Calibration Tables


Dry out vacuum calibration tables were formulated in response to the necessity to hold complex plastic profiles to very restricted tolerances while they were being cooled on the extrusion process. Tables were developed to carry the calibration tooling needed to produce limited tolerances at high end result rates also to allow for the simple changeover from one portion to another. Although the calibration tooling is required to attain this, it is very expensive and alternate methods have been developed to increase rates without building longer and much longer calibration tooling. Tables needed to be modified to be able to deal with the alternate cooling methods.


The calibration tooling can be created from aluminum for better heat transfer nonetheless it is normally made from stainless for better life as a result of abrasive nature of filled plastics rubbing over the polished surfaces. The internal surface area is minimize in the shape of the desired profile and highly polished for low drag resistance. Cooling channels happen to be cut in to the tooling for flow of the critically essential cooling water. In addition, channels are cut into the application for vacuum to draw the plastic component out against the calibrator wall structure to make good contact to ensure cooling and acquiring the proper dimensions. Usually the tool is built to be dry meaning that no normal water touches the extruded account in the calibrator. Some calibration was created to actually introduce handful of water or enable leakage of cooling drinking water to do something as a lubricant between your part and the metal surface. This can also enhance the cooling efficiency.

The initial calibration tooling will smooth the top of hot plastic material since it first enters the tooling. The primary work of the calibration tooling is to cool the portion as it is managing the size and shape of the plastic. The length of the calibration tooling will vary with the relative collection speed screw extruders of the extruded component, the complexity of the account, and the dimensional tolerances needed of the profile. Raising any of the factors will increase the required amount of the tooling. Calibrators are typically built-in sections of 4 to 15 inches in length for ease of manufacture and handling. They are then found in sets to attain the needed length of calibration needed for the account either with or without gaps between each calibration block. Calibration of 4 toes or more isn't uncommon in complex windows profile lines.

Since the primary purpose of the calibration tooling is to cool the plastic material since it is being held in shape, it is critical to have water channels through the tooling in the correct location for uniform cooling and have adequate water flow to keep up the desired processing temperature. Typically cold water that's maintained at 50 - 55 F is used to circulate through the tooling. Sometimes it is desirable for the first calibrator to be slightly warmer compared to the rest to better impart a smooth surface to the plastic also to reduce drag due to shocking the plastic with the original cooling. This warmer temp in the primary calibrator is generally attained by adjusting the move of water entering that first calibrator, on the other hand a temperature controlled device may be used to assure consistent temperature.


Dry out vacuum calibration tables have already been developed and are provided by many companies offering a convenient base which the calibration tooling could be mounted. They generally provide a heavy duty framework with the vacuum and water pumps along with all of the necessary plumbing, including filters, temperature exchangers, etc., along with necessary controls. They allow for simple connection to modular calibration tooling in order that it could be changed out easily. The tooling is usually mounted on some form of rail system for consistent alignment with itself. The table generally incorporates a tray program under the mounting rails to capture any leaking or stray water.

Alignment of the calibration tooling to the extrusion tooling is crucial so movement of the desk is controlled by allowing adjustment of the positioning laterally and up and straight down. These linear motions are typically attained by a hand wheel generating a gear system although a powered drive system can be used. Movement of the desk toward and from the extruder is usually driven due to magnitude of the change that is needed.


An auxiliary container is usually installed on the calibration table after the initial calibration tooling to be able to offer extra cooling for the profile. These tanks are 6 to 12 feet very long typically. They are designed to carry forming plates that continue to contain the part straight while the applied vacuum retains the component out against the forming plates to carry the size and sizes. They are designed to immerse the component in normal water with turbulent blending to split up the insulating layer of water around the skin of the portion. The tank itself is designed for water to be released at the front end end of the tank and the vacuum is certainly applied at the downstream end of the container drawing the drinking water through the tank. Turbulence is created by the placement of holes found in the forming plates usually. Holes all over the component create some turbulence but alternating plates with holes above the component and below the component increase turbulence and normal water flow across the part, increasing cooling efficiency.

These kinds of tanks require a large amount of water movement to achieve the turbulence required for great cooling efficiency. That water is being drawn out of the tank by the vacuum utilized at the downstream end of the container. This requires the usage of liquid ring vacuum pumps that can handle both air needed to pull a vacuum combined with the water that is being announced for cooling and must be sucked out of your tank. However, the more normal water that the pumps have to move reduces their efficiency to pull vacuum pressure which is their primary goal. Therefore, larger horsepower pumps and more of these are needed to make this system work. Commonly a 10-hp pump will be expected for each six to eight 8 foot of auxiliary tank in addition to the vacuum requirements of the calibration tooling. In many high output applications 10, 20 and even 30 legs of auxiliary tanks are needed to achieve the desired cooling. All of these liquid ring vacuum pumps running at low proficiency because they have to pull so much water create a much larger capital expenditure in advance and also higher on-going functioning and maintenance costs.


A better solution would be to separate the normal water from the air in order that each can do it s intended job. The oxygen is needed to attract a vacuum as the water is needed for cooling. The employ of a high strength spray from nozzles that surround the part all the way down the tank provide the necessary quantity of cool water for cooling with no need of abnormal volumes just to set up turbulence. The strength of the spray of cold water onto the surface of the portion breaks up the layer of heated water that can slow down cooling. This volume of water drops to underneath of the container where it can conveniently be taken out separately from the vacuum port. With this configuration, the vacuum pump needs to handle a drastically lower volume of water and can therefore be much more efficient. In fact a liquid band pump may not be required enabling the use of a far more efficient and lower hp Regenerative pump.

Early tables that utilized this technology had the drawback of experiencing a fixed length of rail section for the dry calibration to allow for the specialized auxiliary tank. A fresh generation of hybrid dry calibration tables are becoming made that separate normal water pumping and vacuum devices and provide variable lengths to install calibration tooling. This brings the versatility that a lot of processors need. This versatility can include adjusting spray strength in various sections to optimize cooling as needed, or enabling different levels of vacuum and even different water temperatures in different parts of the tank.

To conclude, these new dry vacuum calibration systems can provide the control of dimensions and size that customers have come to anticipate at higher costs and lower energy costs that processors would like. Different calibration table designs get this to both convenient and practical.

How To Stop Profile Warpage


Faster! Every company wants to run quicker to obtain additional product from the same production range and from the same quantity of labor. Plastic material profile extrusion corporations are no exception. You can easily speed up the extruder to press more pounds or even to buy a larger extruder to get more output. On the other hand, when extruding plastic profiles, the output is usually managed by the cooling of the profile and the capability to hold the part in the correct shape while it is being cooled. It really is hard more than enough to cool simple forms like spherical pipe and tubing more quickly but the difficulty increases once the complexity of the account rises. Window profiles and other complex parts have become difficult to amazing uniformly, and when the parts usually do not cool uniformly warpage and bow may be the result.

Like most materials, plastics shrink as the temperature of the plastic material decreases, but they usually shrink greater than other materials. Plastics shrink at one level when they are in the stable (frozen) state, but they shrink much more when they are still tender or in the molten talk about. The nagging difficulty for the account extruder is controlling this shrinkage when cooling the sizzling plastic, coming out of the extruder, all of the real way down to room temperature. Let s take the simplest example of a set sheet where one side cools faster than the other. When soft both sides will be shrinking at the same rate still. Even if one part is cooling more rapidly and shrinking more quickly the other side continues to be pliable enough to come along with the different shrinking side. On the other hand, once one side cools at night crystalline temp or its glass transition temperature, a couple of things happen. Initial, that materials stiffens and is not any longer pliable more than enough to follow the other side and the pace of shrinkage goes down significantly. It is as if the stiffened side is not any longer shrinking as the other pliable part continues to shrink. Therefore, as the pliable area remains to shrink it really is pulling on the stiffened area and creating a bow in direction of the medial side that cooled previous. In this example, and in other simple profiles, the portion will bow in the direction of the materials that cooled last. In more technical profiles the right parts may twist, distort, or warp in every types of fashions based on which sections of the part cooled last. We ll cover more on this later.

In addition to this problem is the truth that plastics are very good thermal insulators, and therefore they don t transfer warmth very fast. Which makes it difficult to pull all of the heat out from the part to begin with, let alone carrying it out uniformly. Thermal conductivity is usually a measure of how fast components transfer heat. Steel has a thermal conductivity of 43 while Aluminum s higher warmth transfer is 250 and most plastics are method down at values between 0.1 and 0.3.


Considering these problems with cooling profiles it will not be amazing that historically profile extruders often used weather to cool parts.

Air racks are simple tables or frames with plates / manuals and fixtures that contain the part in condition as it is being pulled slowly across the table. Fans are usually used to improve general cooling while compressed weather jets happen to be added where certain additional cooling is necessary. Metal fingers, wires, and jigs attached to the table with clamps or vise grips are accustomed to push the part into shape as it cools very slowly.

Air is very inefficient, meaning SLOW, which in this case is great because slow provides operator time and energy to make changes and get the portion perfectly without warping or other distortion. Complex profiles or parts with several wall thicknesses on numerous parts of the right part may need customized cooling. The operator can immediate more cooling to where he requires it with compressed surroundings nozzles or retard cooling in the areas by insulating a section to maintain it from cooling as well fast. Since thicker sections cool more gradually than thin sections, specific actions should be employed to avoid warp. The operator should direct significantly more cooling on thicker sections to encourage them to neat to the same temperatures simultaneously as slimmer sections on a single profile. Likewise, inside a U-channel or easily an internal corner will awesome slower than an outside corner and can require considerably more directed cooling. Output costs are limited to between 100 - 250 lb./hr. using air since it is so slow.

Today even, some may even now use oxygen cooling when:

Profiles are very complex

Using materials with completely different thermal conductivities

Size of production works do not justify more expensive tooling


When higher output rates are required, cooling with water can be used then. There are many ways to run a component through water based on many variables.

Submersion Tanks

For very easy shapes the part could be extruded over the top of a long water tank and become pushed right here the water by rollers or sizing plates. This may only be utilized for parts where it doesn t matter that the bottom of the part hits the water first (and is cooled initial) while the leading comes down into the water an instantaneous later.

Vacuum Tanks

Extruding larger or even more complex shapes straight into the water container is a superb idea that runs into the simple problem of gravity pulling water out of the container through the hole that the component must go through into the tank. Even tiny gaps between the sides of the part and the sides of the entrance plate will allow drinking water to leak out. This issue is usually solved through the use of vacuum to the complete within the tank to carry the water in. Of course, this requires a particular tank that's strong enough not to collapse from the differential drive of vacuum inside and air strain on the beyond the tank.

Other Options

Another option is to make a small vacuum sleeve around the entrance to suck off any water trying to move through the gap between portion and entrance plate. More recently, profile extruders will place a dry vacuum calibrator in front of the water tank to perform a similar thing. This vacuum calibrator is often as short as 3 for less essential profiles or given that 10 legs for parts which have to end up being hardened to incredibly precise dimensions prior to going into the water container for more cooling. Dry vacuum calibration is not as efficient as drinking water cooling but it is the selling price that must be paid out when tighter control of the dimensions is required.

Water Temperature Choices

It s rather obvious that vacuum tanks are totally closed. Even with an open water container it is very difficult, if not difficult, to find yourself in the tank to put fingers and jigs to push the part into shape as is performed on an oxygen rack. It is also difficult to immediate cooling water or even to insulate parts of the part from cooling. However, it is possible to reduce the proficiency of cooling (i.e. slow it down) to mimic the even more uniform cooling conceivable with an atmosphere rack by heating system the drinking water. This is done with parts which have a strong inclination to warp and specifically with higher temperature engineering supplies. In cases like this a temperature control unit is required to control the temperature of the water at a established value. The higher the water temperature may be the slower the cooling and therefore the easier it is to attain uniform cooling. Controlled heat drinking water mixer extruder between 80 F and 130 F is frequently used in the original tank until colder drinking water can be used to total the cooling. Of course, with the desire for acceleration, the colder the normal water the more rapidly the cooling, so most profile extruders will use chilled water at temps between 50 F and 55 F every time they can.

Water Flow Characteristics

Even even though immersing the entire profile in water provides faster and better cooling it may not be the very best cooling method. Unless the water is being agitated to provide turbulent flow around the part, then your layer of water up coming to the portion will heating up and that hot water next to the component will slow down the cooling. The same phenomena might occur on simple designs like round pipes or tubing to reason uneven cooling and bowing. Everybody knows that warmth rises and heated water is no exception. This is great for the water subsequent to the vertical areas of a part going right through the water. The water is going to be heated by the component and this warm water will rise across the part drawing cool water behind it to help expand cool the part with a continuous renewing of cold water against the part. However, warm water on the bottom surface cannot climb as easily as the part is in the manner. It does slowly move up and draw cool water behind it but much less efficiently than what's taking place on the sides. The most notable is more of a issue because despite the fact that the heated water is not obstructed from moving up and away from the part, the only water that is drawn in to replace it's the heated water upgrading the sides of the component. The top isn't cooled as fast and pipes or other areas will generally bow up (bend upwards). Sizing plates in the tank support break up this movement but only allow cold water onto the very best of the part immediately after the sizing plate. Turbulent circulation of drinking water in the tank considerably helps with this problem.


Spray cooling is an improvement over immersion cooling and another true way to reply the cooling challenge. Spray nozzles will be evenly distributed around the part and down the container to ensure a frequent replenishment of temp controlled drinking water to the top of part. This spray as well ensures more uniform cooling by spraying normal water equally into U-stations and inside corners in comparison to outdoors corners and straight walls. Parts with a simple cross section could be sprayed with chilled water and work at superior rates of production. The task of uneven wall structure thicknesses still needs to be addressed separately. If spraying cool water alone isn't sufficient to attain the uniform cooling that's needed to prevent warping, the water can be heat range controlled to decelerate the cooling and lessen or eliminate warping. Drinking water is required in a sufficient volume to create the turbulent flow in the tank that is needed to split up the insulating layer of warm water.

Some people declare that spray cooling is significantly better than immersion cooling because of the evaporative cooling effect. This is where the water sprayed onto the hot part is quickly turned to steam and evaporates transporting off a lot more heat than the normal water can hold off when immersed. While this impact is real, it really is only true when the area of the plastic is above about 250 F. This only happens in the 1st seconds and even tenths of seconds of the component entering the cooling container. With the high performance of cooling of the drinking water and more importantly the very low conduction of heat from the plastic material to the surface, the surface heat range quickly drops below 250 F. and stays there in order that no more evaporative cooling occurs. Nonetheless, the continuous replenishment of cool water to the surface area is an improvement in the proficiency of the normal water cooling, with the added benefit of certainly not requiring vacuum to carry the water in the tank. Spray cooling possesses considerably more uniform distribution of cooling drinking water over the surface as well as continuous replenishment of cool water on the surface with the added benefit of using much lower flow rates of water.


So, the plastic portion will tell you when it's not getting cooled uniformly by bowing, warping, or distorting. With simple shapes the right part will bow in direction of the wall or section that cooled last. In more complex shapes the contortions will not be as easy to find out with as much as 6 to 10 different wall structure sections cooling at unique rates. Directing even more cooling to sections that obviously would nice slower because they are: thicker, inside corners, otherwise shielded from circulating or spray water shall result in control of warpage. Now the trick would be to speed it up and fix the problem all over again.

Hot Melt Granulation in a Twin Screw Extruder Effects of Processing on Formulations with Caffeine and Ibuprofen


Hot-melt granulation (HMG) by twin screw extrusion is a novel technology for the continuous processing of pharmaceuticals but self-assurance must still be gained regarding if the environment affects medicine real estate. In this preliminary review, granulation was studied for a model product comprising lactose monohydrate and substances of differing water solubility, namely ibuprofen versus caffeine. The formulations had been granulated at 220 rpm and 100 C with polyethylene glycol binders of differing molecular weights and at concentrations between 6.5% and 20%. In terms of granule properties, the reduced melting point of ibuprofen possessed a dominant influence by producing larger, stronger granules, whereas the caffeine products were more comparable to a blank comprising no active plastics extruder ingredient. Drug degradation was analysis by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and high-pressure liquid chromatography. The only detected switch was the dehydration of lactose monohydrate for the caffeine and blank goods, whereas the lubricating affect of the ibuprofen safeguarded its granules. The short residence time ( 60 s) was consider to end up being influential in minimizing destruction of the drug despite the high temperature and shear related to HMG inside a twin screw extruder.

Extrusion Troubleshooter


Extrusion is a "black-box" process. We can not see what goes on inside an extruder, hence we rely on instruments. We have to make sure that all sensors will work and readouts are calibrated correctly.

Single-screw extruders are the most common machines found in plastics processing. Though basically simple in function, they are at the mercy of many destabilizing factors that can bring about out-of-spec item or a shutdown. When difficulties strikes, you will need a strategy for identifying the complexities quickly. An essential part of that strategy may be the troubleshooting timeline. Here we'll identify what it really is and how it can be used to resolve one common extrusion problem-melt fracture in tube and account extrusion.

Start with sensors

Prerequisites to effective troubleshooting include great machinery instrumentation, historical and current process info, detailed feedstock info, complete maintenance information, and operators with a good knowledge of the extrusion process.

Extrusion is a "black-box" process. We can't see how are you affected inside an extruder, consequently we depend on instruments. We must make sure that all sensors will work and readouts are calibrated correctly.

They are the important procedure variables to monitor:

Melt pressure, about 100 times/sec typically.

Melt temperature every 1-10 sec with an immersion probe or every 1-10 millisec with an infrared sensor.

Heat range of the feed casing (if it's water-cooled).

Barrel temperatures (one or two sensors per zone).

Die temperatures (one to 30 or more sensors, depending on die type).

Heater power in kw.

Cooling power, measured as fan rpm if air-cooled or water-temperature flow and increase rate in the event that water-cooled.

Screw speed.

Motor load found in amps.

Line speed.

Finished-product dimensions.

Other process variables may be monitored about upstream devices such as for example dryers, blenders, conveyors, and feeders-and on downstream devices like gear pumps, display changers, calibrators, water troughs, laser gauges, pullers, and winders.

So as to solve extrusion problems, you should understand the process. So operators new to extrusion should have classes covering material characteristics and machinery features such as instrumentation, handles, and screw and die design and style. Many extrusion operations, however, primarily on on-the-job training rely, though here is the least effective and frequently, in some respects, the most expensive method. Improper operation of an extruder by untrained personnel can result in costly damage as well as injuries.

Troubleshooting timeline

To understand why an activity isn't behaving effectively, you need to compare current course of action conditions to previous conditions once the problem didn't exist. Constructing a process timeline helps determine what changes in conditions upset the process.

The timeline requires records from periods of process stability through the true point once the process upset was noticed. You'll need data of most process data-temps, pressures, and dimensions. Make sure to list all events which could have affected the procedure (see Fig. 1), such as a ability outage, change of screw, or a new resin lot. Some significant events are less clear potentially, such as construction in that certain area of the plant, changes in resources handling, maintenance activities on the plant's plastic extrusion machine drinking water system, or the beginning of a new operator.

Note that not all events have an instantaneous effect. There can be a considerable incubation time before the effects of a transformation are noticeable, so it's important not to hop to conclusions. You'll want to start a timeline far plenty of back, even several months before the problem appeared.

Stopping melt fracture

A troubleshooting timeline helped a tubing processor chip to isolate the source of a processing difficulty. One extrusion line abruptly started making tubing with surface roughness caused by melt fracture. Melt fracture can take a number of appearances-slip-stick (or "bamboo"), palm-tree, spiral, or random roughness (Fig. 2).

The timeline showed that the tube brand ran well for nearly six months until the processor switched to a different resin. The timeline likewise showed that a thermocouple had been changed-another suspect. The thermocouple was examined for accuracy, and it ended up being calibrated and was reading temperatures accurately properly. That still left the resin as the most likely culprit. It was a metallocene-type polyolefin, which is commonly more susceptible to melt fracture since it maintains higher viscosities at larger shear rates-i.e., it is less shear-thinning.

In general, melt fracture involves stresses in the die and is often resin-related. It can be cured by either materials or mechanical means. In this full case, the processor cannot change the material.

Melt fracture could be reduced or eliminated by streamlining the die move channel, reducing shear pressure in the land region, using a processing aid, adding die-land heaters, operating above the critical shear stress for melt fracture (referred to as "super extrusion"), or adding ultrasonic vibration-a tiny known but successful strategy highly.

Streamlining the die's flow channel is always smart to prevent melt fracture, nonetheless it adds price. For a high-volume product it seems sensible to pay for for a completely streamlined die, but that may not pay dividends for a small-volume item.

Reducing shear strain in the area region can be achieved by raising the die gap, minimizing the extrusion amount, increasing die-land heat, increasing melt temperatures, or reducing melt viscosity. Viscosity could be reduced with a process lubricant or perhaps aid. When 500 to 1000 ppm of fluoroelastomer is undoubtedly added to a polyolefin, a covering is formed because of it on the die. This coating takes anywhere from five minutes to over an hour to form.

Other common solutions to melt fracture are to set up a heater to raise die-land temperature to the stage where the shear stress drops below the essential shear stress for melt fracture.

Residence time of melt found in the die-land place is so short that temperatures there may be set relatively high. HDPE, for instance, which operations at about 400 F, can go through a die l and at575 F without degrading. Die-land heaters can be retrofitted on the outside of the land area of a tubing die.

A die-land heater can also reduce die-mind pressure and present up to 20% higher extrusion throughputs while maintaining good item appearance and dimensional tolerances.

Super-extrusion is a method where shear stress in the die-land location is well above the critical shear amount for melt fracture. This is practical with HDPE and specific fluoropolymers (FEP and PFA types), which exhibit another region of steady extrusion at bigger shear than in the zone where melt fracture happens (Fig. 3).

Ultrasonic vibration of the die with attached transducers also causes shear thinning of plastics externally. Limited information is on this technique, nonetheless it can lessen melt viscosity by orders of magnitude once the amount of deformation is big enough. The plastic melt level at the die wall is most exposed to high-frequency deformation, producing a significant drop in melt viscosity at the die wall structure. This reduces die-head pressure, die swell, melt fracture, and die-lip drool.

-Edited by Jan H. Schut

Chris Rauwendaal spent some time working in extrusion for nearly 30 years. He heads his very own consulting organization in Los Altos Hills, Calif., which gives screw and die styles and process troubleshooting companies.

Extrusion blow moulding of plastic tubular objects


Typical end products: packaging articles, i. e. bottles, barrels or canisters, technical articles, i. e. ventilation ducts, gaiters (e. g. steering equipment gaiters and axle boot footwear), suitcase hulls, luggage racks or gasoline tanks, large children s toys (e. g. push-powered cars or Bobby-Car?)

Usual materials: PE, PP, PMMA, PC, PA, ABS, PLA, TPU, colour masterbatch

Typical throughputs: 300-1000 kg/h

Process description

In the extrusion blow moulding process, thermoplastic color and resins masterbatch granules are mixed at the intake of a single screw extruder. The thermoplastic resins generally come out of silos while the colour masterbatch granules emerge from containers on the machine pedestal. Flash from blow moulding production is ground directly at the device and the regrind is normally directed from the grinder over a cyclone and blown plastic extruder machine into a buffer container. All three factors (thermoplast, color masterbatch and and regrind) will be dosed respectively through a dosing axle of the GRAVICOLOR (gain-in-weight). Scrap is normally reground centrally, in some cases it really is regranulated afterwards. This materials is fed back into the buffer container through a hopper loader and reintroduced in to the process.

Due to the high throughputs found in the blow moulding procedure it makes sense to possess a central vacuum program when several devices are participating. In a vaccum range system, the air level of the conveying blower plus the vacuum tubing are calculated so that only 1 hopper loader can convey at the same time. Which means that the proportion of blowers to the amount of conveying models in the line should be chosen so that every point of consumption is supplied with sufficient material constantly. In a central vacuum program several hopper loaders are capable of feeding simultaneously per series or within the complete system. Through the adjustable allocation, output should not be reserved which effects in considerable energy savings. The parallel-managed pumps will shut down automatically (pressure controlled) depending on air flow requirements. Since full vacuum exists at all time and doesn't have to be built up after a run-on period as in lines, higher throughput rates could be attained.

In the extrusion blow moulding program, a hose is generated by means of a mould at the ultimate end of the extruder. The hose is lower to length and fed to the final blow moulded merchandise for further processing.

Customer benefits

Adaptable operation through modular designReduction of downtimes at material changes through intuitive handling (spring catches, etc.)High-quality (digital) load cell technology secures better recipe integrity due to a very short reaction time at recipe and/or throughput changes. Furthermore, the time-consuming process of sampling and calibrating the system is undoubtedly omittedAcquisition of the consumption data precise accounts of costs and stockkeeping possibleVery precise control of the entire process (start-up stage, recipe change, quickly and constant adjustment of creation capacities), automatic start-up procedure through integration of upstream controlExpertise in procedure engineering and process-oriented overall know-how will make motan-colortronic the ideal partner for you

Extruder Processing Zone (EPZ) is the heart of a Co rotating Twin Screw Extruder


Work done in the Extruder Processing Zone of a good co-rotating twin-screw extruder benefits in the required quality of compounded materials and productivity level. The Extruder Processing Zone (EPZ) is the center of a Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extruder mixer extruder that really helps to achieve the required performance.

In the EPZ, several actions are carried out on the material as it performs its way through the extruder and exits from the die. With respect to the dynamics of work being completed, these zones are called Intake, Melting, Atmospheric Venting, Mixing, Vacuum Metering and Venting. Proper configuration with a good choice of barrels and elements optimizes the performance of every zone. Solids conveying in Intake, Softening of Polymer in Melting, Degassing in Venting, Distribution and dispersion associated with Kneading actions in Mixing, Discharge control in Metering are the functions of the many zones.

Conveying screws, Kneading Blocks and various other Mixing Elements are the working participants in each zone. Producing the proper selection among numerous elements and configuring them in the proper order needs understanding of the functional qualities of each element. This article attempts to throw further light in understanding the characteristics and zones of elements.

Configuration of Screw Factors in EPZ

The adage unique strokes for distinctive folks holds good when one attempts to manage the EPZ (Extruder Processing Zones) of a Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extruder. In this EPZ area the key to achievement lies with the exact design of the Factor and Barrel Configuration. In the overall game of Chess, a great formation is important to achieve a winning result, since items in isolation cannot perform. That is true in the entire case of Compounding also. Elements work greatest in some combinations, and some elements are more effective than others. Certainly, it really is true! Importantly,

1. The design has to deliver the right amount of work on the product for mixing and melting.

2. The design must have the capacity to take the product in and out of the extruder.

3. Lastly, the design should allow gases or volatiles to escape without the merchandise leaking out through Vents.

It is usually imagined there are different zones (area) inside the extruder performing a number of specific functions. Just like a relay competition, each zone passes on the baton (the materials being processed) to the next zone and until the final stage. Extruder functionality measured by energy consumption, quality and level of output, depends on the look of the processing zones largely. The effective collection of factors is the first step in design. The right length and mix of elements is the next thing. We will talk about these several zones and outline the factor characteristics, its potential use and specific design principles

Extruder Polymera closes


HEBRON, OHIO - Polymera Inc., a profile extruder and compounder of wood-plastic composite materials, closed July 14, laying off about 30 people.

The company was founded in 2010 2010 and began operations the next year in Hebron, about 25 miles east of Columbus, Ohio. Polymera control included several sector veterans with years of experience from Crane Plastics Making Inc. of Columbus.

Polymera owner and President Maan Said did not return calls seeking comment.

Following a tip that the ongoing company could possibly be closed, july 28 a Plastics News reporter stopped by the factory in a Hebron industrial park on. The front door was locked. No cars had been in the parking great deal. Jason Staffan then, a laid-off plant worker, drove in his pickup up, looking for a supervisor to signal his form to acquire unemployment compensation.

Staffan said the factory closed July 14. Said named an emotional meeting between your third and second shifts to announce the news, Staffan said.

Staffan had worked at Polymera for approximately one-and-a-half years, running pelletizers and extruders.

I loved performing here, he said. We'd a great crew. Staffan said, I d definitely come back, if Polymera can reopen.

Maan Said was a hands-on screw extruder executive who pitched directly into help you in the factory often, Staffan said. Maan was a great dude. He was out there sweeping the flooring surfaces around, he said.

Staffan said that of management was first supportive and good to utilize. Asked if there were any bad guys in the closing, he explained: Funds was the bad guy. You stop earning money and you can t stay in business.

Management personnel drove into the parking lot then, and signed his unemployment form. The plant was confirmed by them had closed but referred questions to Said.

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