Melanin, Dark Matter, Dark Energy Fundamentals of the Universe - Yahwesha_Judah's Blog

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Melanin, Dark Matter, Dark Energy Fundamentals of the Universe


Black matter is found universally, especially in the amorphous state. All the black matter known to date, from the lithosphere and biosphere to the cosmos, generally has the same chemical and physical properties. These include electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR); electrical properties; changes in surface properties under the effects of an electric field; the X-ray diffraction spectrum [1]; sensitivity to radiation inducing photo-ionization and photolysis [2]; explosion and fragmentation under the effects of LASER, pyrolysis, or fast atom bombardment [3-5]. The physical properties of black particles, and some of the chemical ones too, do not depend on the structure and nature of the melanogen. An extensive polyconjugated radical-polaronic system can be found in all pigments, known as Little's spine [6]. The atoms are arranged in hexagons or pentagons, which are assembled in sandwiches in layers 3.4Å apart, like graphite in the open form, or giant fullerenes in the closed form. Black material has certain striking chemical properties: it is sensitive to H2O2 and halogens, it irreversibly loses CO2 and H2O on heating; it can bind organic products, drugs, ions and gas. From many viewpoints the melanins resemble activated charcoal in their chemical-physical behaviour. Radioastronomy has shown there are organic molecules in the black dust clouds in the Milky Way. Some of these molecules are very simple, like acetonitrile, or acetylene systems like the polyines. Acetylene molecules like HC5N, HC7N, and HC9N have been detected by spectroscopic analysis. Giant red stars also emit enormous amounts of carbon dust into the surrounding space, suggesting there may be some links between the acetylene structures and soot formation [7, 8]. This implies that interstellar space may look black not just because of the lack of light, or because strong gravitational fields prevent light escaping [9], but also because of the presence of black matter in the solid state. This matter would be in continual transformation under the action of radiation us/13.htm Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating matter, such as black materials, sometimes smaller than 100 nanometers and taking advantages of the properties, such as electrical conductivity, that is present only at that level. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter, or about one-millionth the size of a pin head. The prefix comes from "nanos," the Greek word for dwarf. Nanotechnology has been around for several decades, but only now is its potential starting to be realized. Medicine is expected to be only one of the fields to benefit most from the technology. One of the first things we learn in science class is that there are three states of matter, gas, liquid and solid. All black materials belong to the solid state and follow its laws. Black materials are present in the entire universe and are of great interest for the evolution of our planet and living systems. They are present in the lithosphere as minerals, graphite, black shale, fullerenes; in the hydrosphere as black particles in seas, lakes and rivers; in the atmosphere as soot and smoke; in cosmos as fullerenes and cosmids; and in the universe as black holes. In the biosphere, black matter is better known as the melanin (black pigment) molecule, in all its forms. The chemical element carbon is the basis of most life on this planet and is also black in colour. Melanin constitutes a class of pigments, which are widespread in humans, animals and vegetables. While the name melanin in Greek means black, not all melanin as pigments are black but may vary from brown to yellow. It belongs to a family of unique and very stable black substances that is present throughout nature and the universe. Physical Characteristics of Black Materials and Melanin But even before we learn about the different states of matter, we learn that matter cannot be created or destroyed, only rearranged. One of the physical characteristics of black materials is the ability to rearrange its chemical structure to absorb all energy across the radiant energy spectrum. Reflected energy is white light, i.e. from the sun, in the visible range whereas absorbed energy is black in colour. Melanin absorbs light energy, sound energy and electromagnetic energy. Melanin has many other interesting properties too, such as ultraviolet absorption, where it is currently being utilized in the preparation of UV-absorbing optical lenses and in cosmetic creams. The colours of melanin are those of a pure semiconductor. As with other black materials, such as graphite and fullerenes, this state is subject to changes by doping with other materials. All black materials, including melanin, show a remarkable affinity for metals and exhibit the ability to form charge-transfer complexes, which can carry either a positive or a negative charge. Melanin can conduct electricity without offering resistance to the flow of electricity. This means that melanin has super-conducting capabilities. It also behaves like an insulator in that it will not allow electrical current to pass through its structure, similar to rubber and plastic insulators. The added ability of melanin to undergo polymerization is of great interest in Industry for its nano-technological use in bio-plastics and biopolymers. Melanin also displays what is called threshold switching (an on/off switch), which means it can function as a bio-mechanical regulator of biological functions. Of even greater interest to the scientific community is its use in the genetic engineering of pharmaceutical drugs for specific diseases and other microbial applications using nanotechnology. For example, two research laboratories at the Savannah River Site in the US are undertaking a study to better understand how scientists can encourage certain bacteria to produce more of a type of melanin, a pigment similar to the one that makes humans’ skin darker, which could be use to clean up metals and radionuclides (radiation particles) in the environment. This is called bioremediation, the use of living things, such as microbes or plants to clean up environmental contamination. Melanin has been shown to accelerate the rate at which microbes transform metals and radionuclides in the soil. Researchers hope to stimulate the bacteria to produce more melanin by providing them certain nutrients, which in turn, could speed up the rate at which metals and radionuclides currently in the environment are detoxified or immobilized. In another example, experiments on mice have shown promise for the future of nanotechnology in treating cancer. The technology being tested involves a nano-particle of a hydrogen and carbon polymer with bits of drug bound up in its fabric and attached to a substance that hones in on cancer cells. By successfully treating prostate cancer tumour in mice, this research brings doctors one step closer to being able to inject patients with nanoparticles that bore inside tumours and release powerful doses of cancer-killing drugs while leaving the rest of the body untouched. However, one major problem scientists were having in perfecting the blood injection is that the nanoparticles are ending up in the liver and spleen - an unwanted side effect because once they dissolve in those organs, they release toxic levels of chemotherapy to healthy tissue. Melanin in Human Physiology African physiology is based on the melanin biochemical molecule. Melanin is a unique life chemical found in high concentration in people of African descent. In addition to providing pigmentation to hair, skin and eyes, melanin is incorporated into all major systems and vital organs in the body, bringing control of all bodily systems under the central nervous system, the body’s information network. It is in the nervous system, the spinal cord, the glands, the brain, the DNA, the muscles, intestines, the heart, blood and the liver. Its presence can be found throughout nature and is also found in many of our foods. As a free radical scavenger or oxygen scavenger, melanin has additional anti-toxin characteristics and as such, can serve as a terminator of free radical chain reactions. As a free radical scavenger, melanin plays an important role in preserving cells from the toxic effects of oxygen (antioxidant effect) and is generally present at the site of tissue repair, regeneration of cuts and wounds, and infectious diseases. Melanin also increases the speed of nerve and brain messages which are transmitted between the left and right hemispheres of the brain and all signals transmitted throughout the bodily nerve network. Melanin can bind and release many of the known elements that are essential for proper body metabolism. It readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and is therefore useful as a carrier for other therapeutic agents that must reach brain tissue to produce their therapeutic responses. A variety of drugs, such as chloroquine, cocaine, heroin, amphetamines, etc., were designed to have a high affinity for melanin. In the past, western medicine considered melanin a waste product of human metabolism, serving no useful function in the body. Modern science has since discovered that the melanin molecule, like other black materials to which it is related, is very old, very refined, complex, multifunctional, biochemical polymer having a wide variety of important functions within the human body and throughout nature. Earlier scientific studies elucidating human biochemical structures never took into account the importance of melanin in the human body. Therefore, early medical and pharmaceutical determinations based the physical, neurological and metabolic responses of animals, in the treatment of disease, only on white or albino animals as a means of extrapolating the mean response of humans to laboratory-produced drugs, chemicals and pesticides. Consequently, the physiological, metabolic and neurological differences in the biological makeup of black people were not included in those studies. This is one of the reasons why western medicine does not work adequately in melanated people and the reason why we suffer so many side-effects from these substances. Race-based medicine, now being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, is based on synthetic and genetically-engineered drugs, chemicals, food and now, melanin. Naturally-occurring melanins include eumelanins, phaeomelanins, neuromelanins and allomelanins (plant-based). Colours in humans are determined chiefly by two types of melanin, eumelanins and phaeomelanin. Eumelanins are derived from the precursor, tyrosine, generally insoluble and black or brown in colour. Phaeomelanins have tyrosine and cysteine as their precursors, are generally alkali-soluble and much lighter in colour. Under the microscope melanin is brown, non-refractile and finely granular with individual granules, having a diameter of less than 800 nanometers. Melanins are polymers produced by polymerization of reactive intermediates. The reactive intermediates are produced chemically or enzymatically from precursors consisting of smaller chemical species in varying amounts, such as tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamate, phenylalanine, serotonin, melantonin, dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline). The term melanin includes naturally- occurring melanins, which are usually high molecular weight polymers (generally, molecular weights in the millions). Naturally-occurring melanin is formed through natural biochemical pathways. One is diet, involving the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine. Phenylalanine is a dietary chemical that comes from red meat and soya. It is a melanin precursor, which can raise blood pressure. Another pathway for natural melanin production involves the use of the neurotransmitters, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Melanin production is intimately involved with the neural system (neuromelanin) because tyrosine and phenylalanine are also precursors for the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinphrine and dopamine. The metabolic pathway, for the production of melanin from amino acid building blocks, finds maximal presence in those cells that have a high demand for those products, the brain. Brain cells have high levels of tyrosinase because there is a high demand for dopamine. The enzyme, tyrosinase plays a key role in the syntheses of melanins and its derivatives. The substantia nigra, the region of the brain where the concentration of melanin is very high, is noted for cells with high levels of tyrosinase. Insufficient amounts of this enzyme causes melanin deficiencies in some humans. The gene for human tyrosinase has been isolated, genetically sequenced and cloned. Currently, melanin is being produced synthetically or isolated from natural sources. Natural sources include beef eyes, squid, hair, bacteria such as Streptococcus antibioticus and E. coli, and the human brain, among others. lanin_and_bio_nanotechnology.h tm To start at the beginning: Melanin is a Greek name (from melanos) which denotes the color black. It is true however that before the Greeks appropriated Afrikan civilization and science, in KMT or Egypt (which is a Greek misguided name) the ancient black Egyptian (Metu Nefer) word that had the blackest connotation was KMT and they named themselves by it (kamau). On a psychological level, the study of melanin is a key to unlock mental slavery of black people. Melanin is the fundamental unit of the universe and can exist in four forms including Cosmic Melanin, Planetary Melanin, Plant Kingdom Melanin (chlorophyll) and Animal Kingdom melanin (black pigmentation). The latter is the appropriate field of study for Afrikans. In humans, tyrosine, an amino acid, is the main nutrient. Tyrosine is a precursor of melanin and lays the foundation for melanin to be produced. The body must contain an enzyme known as tyrosinase and copper to be able to use tyrosine to create melanin. In humans there are three types of melanin. The first being Eumelanin which has a high electric charge, high molecular weight and density and gives rise to colors from dark brown to blue black. A less dense form of melanin with lower molecular weight is known as pheo-melanin or pseudo-melanin. It has been established that those with no melanin have quite a few more cancers and genetic disorders than those with pheo-melanin. It is also true that people with pheo-melanin have also quite a few more cancerous developments than those with Eumelanin. The organ of the human body with the largest surface area is, of course, the skin. Many people are aware that the deep concentration of melanin in African peoples skin makes them black and enables them to use the rays of the sun more effectively than our less “melanated” counterparts, but what few know is that melanin is not only present in our skin but it permeates our whole physical being. It is contained in a small battery cell called a Melanosome. The degree of blackness in various organs in Afrikan people depends on the type of melanin contained and its weight. Melanin is present in each organ and regulates the workings of our brain. Within the human brain stem are 12 centers of black melanin. On the earth, only humans have deep pigmentation of all twelve-brain centers. The brain center with the deepest pigmentation is the Locus Coeruleus or Black Dot. The Locus Coeruleus supplies the pineal gland with norepinephrine. The pineal gland controls the flow of melatonin during the night hours to activate R.E.M sleep which allows us to communicate with internal memory pools or other dimensions of life in nature. Melanin also causes seratonin to flow more effectively in the waking state so to “inspirience” more spirituality. This also helps to keep spiritual intunement at an apex. The less melanin in an individual, the more calcified the pineal gland and less access the individual has to the spiritual world. Melanin exists also as biopigment for vision in the eyes of humans and all vertebrates. Color vision is produced in the retina by melanin through photopigments. These allow deeper melanin concentrations, offer protection from the sun as well as a fuller vision of the color spectrum. The melanin content in the inner ear also is of great importance. Through this ear pigmentation, it was found that increased melanin increases hearing frequencies. Melanin is also used to make the Black Dot more in touch with the universe. This Black Dot (Third Eye) was seen by our Kemetic ancestors as the access point to inner wisdom and divinity. This was the invisible door to the pyramid which when activated would decipher the mysteries. Melanin in its most concentrated form is black. It is black because its chemical structure will not allow any energy to escape once that energy has come in contact with it. This gives us an insight and shows that melanin dominant people do not require the same amount of minerals and nutrients in their diet as people with less melanin. Melanin absorbs light rays and stores them so that they can be used as energy later on. This is why Melanin dominant people are able to use sunlight more effectively. A perfect example of melanin’s use is related to Vitamin D. Vitamin D can be found in the skin of melanin dominant individuals after sun exposure, whereas less “melanated” people require the intake of dairy products to secrete vitamin D. It is important for people with high melanin content not to indulge in dairy products because after the age of 5, 80% of highly melanated people are lactose intolerant. For our people, eating diary leads to blockage diseases in the body. So instead of asking your brothers and sisters if they “Got milk?” you need to ask them the question, “Got Melanin?” This is just one example and also a brief look at the pervasive manifestations of melanin and its uses. It is a fact that we have ceased to know about our melanin and ceased to use it accordingly. The key to our liberation is the reactivation of our melanin faculties. t_melanin_anyone.htm elanin n physical cosmology, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe. [1] Assuming the existence of dark energy is the most popular way to explain recent observations that the universe appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate. In the standard model of cosmology, dark energy currently accounts for almost three-quarters of the total mass-energy of the universe. Astrophysicists around the world are refining and improving their ability to study distant and ancient light. These advances are also helping scientists understand the dark energy, dark matter and black holes that make up the 96 percent of the cosmos that we can’t see — the dark side. 77421/ Dark Energy: The current observations and estimates of dark matter is that 20% of dark matter is probably in the form of massive neutrinos, even though that mass is uncertain. The another 5% to 10% is in the form of stellar remnants and low mass, brown dwarfs. The rest of dark matter is called CDM (cold dark matter) of unknown origin, but probably cold and heavy. The combination of all these mixtures only makes 20 to 30% the amount mass necessary to close the Universe. Thus, the Universe appears to be open, i.e. ΩM is 0.3. With the convergence of our measurement of Hubble's constant and ΩM, the end appeared in site for the determination of the geometry and age of our Universe. However, all was throw into turmoil recently with the discovery of dark energy. Dark energy is implied by the fact that the Universe appears to be accelerating, rather than decelerating, as measured by distant supernovae. st123/lectures/lec16.html

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