Medical Biomaterials and Plastics
Versatile twin-screw systems can be used for compounding, devolatilization, or reactive extrusion-with the end products ranging from pellets and fibers to tubes, film, and sheet.
Polymer compounds are used for an extremely wide range of molded and extruded medical components and units. Such compounds are composed of a basic resin that's thoroughly blended with other components that provide specific beneficial properties associated with the particular end product-for example, effects resistance, clarity, or radiopacity.
Twin-screw extruder with gear-pump entrance end and downstream account system,.
An important kind of plastics digesting machinery referred to as a twin-screw extruder is used to combine fillers and additives with the polymer in a continuing manner, so that the substance shall perform as needed and achieve the desired properties. Factors including the selection of corotation versus counterrotation, screw design parameters, and downstream-pelletizing-system and feeder-program configurations are all important design requirements for an effective compounding procedure employing twin-screw equipment.
Single-screw extruders are generally used to make products such as catheters and medical-grade movies from pellets that have already been compounded. The primary function of the extruders is to melt and pump the polymer to the devolatilizing, die and with reduced mixing. The use of an individual screw for such applications minimizes strength input in to the process; such devices are in lots of ways the exact reverse of a compounding extruder, which is a high-energy-input device.
THE COMPOUNDING PROCESS
Compounding extruders are used to mix together two or more materials into a homogeneous mass in a continuous process. This is accomplished through distributive and dispersive blending of the many components in the substance as required (Figure 1). In distributive blending, the components are uniformly distributed in space in a uniform ratio without being divided, whereas dispersive mixing involves the breaking down of agglomerates. High-dispersive mixing requires that significant strength and shear be part of the process.
Compounding extruders perform number of basic tasks: feeding, melting, mixing, venting, and developing die and localized pressure. Various types of extruders can be used to complete these goals, including single screw, counterrotating intermeshing twin screw, corotating intermeshing twin screw, and counterrotating nonintermeshing twin screw. The sort and physical type of the polymer products, the properties of any fillers or additives, and the degree of mixing required will have a bearing on equipment selection.
Twin-screw compounding units are primarily dedicated to transferring temperature and mechanical strength to provide mixing and various support functions, with minimal regard for pumping. Many procedures performed via this kind of extruder are the polymerizing of new polymers, modifying polymers via graft reactions, devolatilizing, blending numerous polymers, and compounding particulates into plastics. In comparison, single-screw plasticating extruders are designed to minimize energy type and to increase pumping uniformity, and so are inadequate to execute highly dispersive and energy-intensive compounding capabilities generally.
Among the typical process parameters which are managed in a twin-screw extruder operation are screw speed (in revolutions per minute), feed rate, temperatures across the barrel and die, and vacuum level for the devolatilization plant. Typical readouts involve melt pressure, melt temperature, electric motor amperage, vacuum level, and material viscosity. The extruder motor inputs energy in to the process to perform compounding and related mass-transfer capabilities, whereas the rotating screws impart both shear and strength in order to mix the elements, devolatilize, and pump.
Twin-screw compounding extruders for medical applications are available commercially in three modes: corotating intermeshing, counterrotating intermeshing, and counterrotating nonintermeshing (Physique 2). Although each possesses certain attributes which make it ideal for particular applications, both intermeshing types are generally better fitted to dispersive compounding.
Twin-screw extruders make use of modular barrels and screws (Figures 3 and 4). Screws happen to be assembled on shafts, with barrels configured as basic, vented, area stuffing, liquid drain, and liquid addition. The modular design of twin-screw devices provides extreme process flexibility by facilitating such changes because the rearrangement of barrels, making the length-to-size (L/D) ratio much longer or shorter, or modifying the screw to match the precise geometry to the mandatory process task. Also, since wear is often localized in the extruder's solids-conveying and plastication section, only specific ingredients may have to be changed during preventive maintenance procedures. By the same token, expensive high-alloy corrosion- and abrasion-resistant metallurgies may be employed just where protection against use is needed.
The heart of any twin-screw compounding extruder is its screws. The modular characteristics of twins and the choice of rotation and amount of intermesh makes conceivable thousands of screw style variables. Nevertheless, there are several similarities among the many screw types. Forward-flighted factors are accustomed to convey elements, reverse-flighted elements are used to create pressure areas, and kneaders and shear components are used to mix and melt. Screws could be made shear intensive or less aggressive using the number and type of shearing elements integrated into the screw program.
There are five shear regions in the screws for just about any twin-screw extruder, regardless of screw rotation or degree of intermesh. The following is going to be a brief description of each region:
Channel-low shear. The mixing price in the channel in a twin is similar to that of a single-screw extruder, and is significantly less than in the different shear regions.
Overflight/tip mixing-big shear. Located between your screw tip and the barrel wall structure, this area undergoes shear that, by some estimates, is really as much as 50 times greater than in the channel.
Lobal pools-great shear. With the compression of the materials entering the overflight region, a mixing-fee acceleration develops from the channel, with a particularly effective extensional shear result.
Intermesh interaction-superior shear. Right here is the mixing region between the screws where in fact the screws "clean," or nearly wipe. Intermeshing twins are obviously more shear-intensive in this region than are nonintermeshing twins.
Apex mixing-excessive shear. This is actually the region where in fact the interaction from the second screw affects the material mixing rate. Mixing components could be dispersive or distributive. The wider the blending element, the extra dispersive its action, as planar and elongational shear effects occur as materials are forced up and on the land. Narrower mixing elements are more distributive, with substantial melt-division rates and considerably less elongational and planar shear (Physique 5). Newer distributive mixing elements allow for various melt divisions without extensional shear, that can be particularly useful for mixing heat- and shear-sensitive materials (Physique 6).
Single-screw extruders possess the channel, overflight, and lobal mixing regions, however, not the intermesh and apex types. Because single-screw units absence these high-shear regions, they are not ideal for high-dispersive mixing generally. They are often adequate, however, for distributive blending applications.
All twin-screw compounding extruders are starved-fed equipment virtually. In a starved twin-screw extruder, the feeders set the throughput rate and the extruder screw speed can be used and independent to optimize compounding efficiency. The four high-shear regions are independent from the degree of screw fill basically. Accordingly, at a given screw rate, as throughput is heightened, the entire mixing often decreases, because the low-shear channel combining region tends to dominate the four independent high-shear areas. If the extruder velocity is held frequent and the throughput is going to be decreased, the high-shear regions will dominate more, and better combining will result. The same principle applies to counterrotating and corotating twins, each which gets the same five shear areas.
In a traditionally designed counterrotating intermeshing twin, the top velocities in the intermesh region are in the same direction, which benefits in an increased percentage of the supplies passing through the high-dispersive calender gap place on each turn. New counterrotating screw geometries will be less reliant on calender gap mixing, and take advantage of the geometric independence that is inherent in counterrotation to employ up to hexalobal mixing element, when compared with a bilobal element in corotation.
The top velocities in the intermesh region for the corotating intermeshing twin are in opposite directions. With this construction, materials are generally wiped from one screw to the different, with a comparatively low percentage getting into the intermesh gap. Materials tend to follow a figure-eight design in the flighted screw areas, and most of the shear is without question imparted by shear-inducing kneaders in localized areas. Because the flight from one screw cannot distinct the various other, corotation is limited to bilobal mixing elements at standard airline flight depth.
The aforementioned comparison of corotation and counterrotation can be an extreme oversimplification. Both types are great dispersive mixers and can perform most tasks equally well. It is limited to product-specific applications that definitive suggestions can be designed for one mode on the other.
Single-screw extruders are usually flood-fed machines, with the single screw quickness determining the throughput cost of the machine. Because twin-screw compounders aren't flood fed, the output rate is determined by the feeders, and screw swiftness can be used to optimize the compounding proficiency of the procedure. The pressure gradient in a twin-screw extruder is normally controlled and kept at zero for much of the process (Figure 7). This has substantial ramifications in regards to to sequential feeding also to immediate extrusion of something from a compounding extruder.
The selection of a feeding system for a twin-screw compounding extruder is extremely important. Components could be premixed in a batch-type mixing system and volumetrically fed into the main feed interface of the extruder. For multiple feed streams, each materials is separately fed via loss-in-pounds feeders into the main feed port or a downstream position (top or side feed). Each setup has advantages according to the product, the average work size, and the nature of the plant operation.
When premix is feasible, a percentage of the entire mixing job is accomplished before the materials being processed in the twin-screw extruder. The result can be a better-quality compound. Outputs can also be increased, since the screws could be run additional "filled" weighed against sequential feeding. Many techniques usually do not lend themselves to premixing due to segregation in the hopper and different related problems. A premix operation is often appealing for shorter-run, specialty high-dispersion compounding applications, such as for example those with color concentrates.
Loss-in-weight feeding systems are often used to separately meter multiple pieces into the extruder. Loss-in-weight feeders accept a set point and utilize a PID algorithm to meter substances with extreme accuracy (normally < 0.5%). They're typically employed when components segregate, when there are mass density fluctuations of the feedstock, whenever a product is being extruded directly from the compounder, or when any various other factor exists that can result in inconsistent metering. The feeders will be easily interfaced with SPC/SQC operations. Multiple-component feed streams are often the better choice for larger-volume commodity creation runs.
The pressure gradient linked to the starved-fed, twin-screw extruder facilitates feeding downstream from the primary feed port. Generally, there's near-zero pressure for a lot of the procedure. The localized pressure depends upon the screw style, facilitating downstream feeding of liquids or fillers such as barium sulfate.
Downstream feeding can be accomplished through injection ports for liquids, and into vents or perhaps via twin-screw side stuffers for an array of other materials, in filler loadings seeing that high due to 80%. This separation of the process tasks combined with targeted introduction often effects in much less barrel and screw don with abrasive components and in a better-quality product.
After the materials passes through a filtering device, the merchandise emerging from the extruder must be converted into a form that can be handled by fabricating equipment. This consists of selecting a downstream pelletizer-generally a strand-cut normally, water-ring, or underwater system.
In strand-trim systems, the molten strands are cooled in a water trough and pulled through a water stripper by the draw rolls of the pelletizer. The pelletizer uses both major- and bottom-motivated rolls, which feed the strands to a helical cutter. Water-ring or die-deal with pelletizers cut the strands on or near the die face with high-speed knives. The pellets are in that case conveyed right into a slurry discharge, which is pumped into a dryer where in fact the pellets will be separated from the normal water. In underwater pelletizers, the die encounter is without question submerged in a water-packed chamber or housing, and the pellets happen to be water quenched.
Sometimes, users desire to extrude a item for instance a tube, film, sheet, or perhaps fiber from the compounding extruder directly, bypassing the pelletizing procedure thereby. This quite often involves conflicting process goals. For instance, to optimize compounding performance, the twin screws are likely to be operated in a starved approach at large speeds, with a zero pressure gradient along a lot of the barrel. This can result in inconsistent or low pressure to the die, which is unacceptable for extruding a product. If the screws are run slower or stuffed more, pressure could be stabilized and gained but at the expense of an excellent compound. Equipment pumps or takeoff single-screw extruders are sometimes attached to the front of the twin-screw compounder and used to build and stabilize pressure to the die.
The controls connected with attaching a front-end takeoff tend to be more complex weighed against those for a stand-alone compounding procedure. The takeoff gear pump or one screw becomes the expert device, with extruder and feeder speeds adjusted compared mixer extruder to that of the pump to keep a constant inlet pressure. A PID control algorithm can be created that communicates with the feeder(s) and considers the residence time from the feeder through the extruder-generally about 1 minute. Each product operate on the machine will generally need a fair sum of development effort with regard to the pressure control function.
Advantages associated with in-line extrusion from a good twin-screw compounder include the polymer having one-less shear and heat history, which results found in improved end-product homes often, the elimination of pelletizing, the avoidance of demixing that can occur in the single-screw method, and the ability to fine-tune a good formulation on-line to get quality assurance.
There are lots of critical design issues that a medical manufacturer should consider when installing a compounding system. They are influenced by the resources being processed, the precise end market where the product will be utilized, the common run size, and the type of the plant where in fact the gear will be located. Upstream downstream and feeding program options are believe it or not important than the selection of counterrotation or corotation, or the shear intensity used in the screw style. Because many subtle differences are present between competing twin-screw settings, a user's own preferences also enter the equation. All alternatives is highly recommended before a decision is certainly finalized carefully.